Lesson 2

Authority Control in the Card Environment

  Even if your library is already automated, learning about authority control in the card environment can give you a better understanding of authority control principles which can be applied to the automated environment.  In this section you will learn about authority control for names, uniform titles, corporate bodies, subjects and series.

    Many larger libraries that use or used cards, particularly academic libraries, are familiar with authority card catalogs.  The authority catalog is found in addition to the shelf list and the public card catalog.  Authority files include established headings, associated cross reference structures, and other information useful to catalogers and other librarians.  Some libraries include call numbers used with different names, corporate bodies, subjects or series.  The following examples demonstrate authority cards found in an authority file catalog and the corresponding entries and cross references found in a public card catalog.

Example of a Name Authority: - Choices and forms of entry for names are based on rules set forth in Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed., 2002 revision, 2003 update, chapter 22.  Chapter 26 of AACR2R has instructions on when and how to make cross references.

Key to an authority card:
uf  = used for (a see from reference)
sa = see also from reference

           Le Carre, John, 1931-

             uf  Cornwell, David John Moore, 1931-
             uf   LeCarre, John, 1931-
             uf   Carre, John Le, 1931-

             823
             L461
                                 ( )

Public card catalog cards (what the public sees)

           Cornwell, David John Moore, 1931-

             see

         Le Carre, John, 1931-
                                 ( )

 

           LeCarre, John, 1931-

             see

         Le Carre, John, 1931-
                                 ( )

                                                

           Carre, John, 1931-

             see

         Le Carre, John, 1931-
                                 ( )

 
Example of a Corporate Name Authority: - Choices and forms of entry for corporate names are based on rules set forth in Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed., 2002 revision, 2003 update, chapter 24.

Key to authority card:

uf  = used for (a see from reference)
sa = see also from reference

           Democratic Party (U.S.)

             uf   Democrat Party
                                 ( )

Public card catalog cards (what the public sees)

           Democratic Party

             see

         Democratic Party (U.S.)
                                 ( )


Example of a Uniform Title Authority

Uniform titles are established when a work has been published under various titles.  The uniform title brings together the different forms of the title.   For example, Hamlet is the uniform title for Shakespeare's work that has appeared under this title as well as other titles such as The Tragedy of Hamlet and The Prince of Denmark.  The uniform title authority card would show the established title used to bring together all the varying forms.

           Hamlet.

             uf  Tragedy of Hamlet
             uf  Prince of Denmark

                             ( )                            

The public card catalog card (what the public sees) is shown below.   A cross reference would be made from each varying title to the heading.  On the catalog card for the item itself the title Hamlet would appear in brackets beneath the author on the catalog card.

           Prince of Denmark

             see

         Hamlet.

                             ( )                           

 


822.3    Shakespeare, William, 1564-1616.
                [Hamlet]
                The Prince of Denmark ............

                               ( )


Examples of Series Authorities

The series authority card would show exactly how the series is to be set up, including the proper punctuation and whether the series should be one of the following 4 options:

In other words, libraries need to decide if they are going to group all parts of a series together under the title of the series, classify them together, or spread them out in the collection.  A primary concern is how patrons are likely to search for a series.  Will they be looking for component parts or a single series title?   Decisions also need to be made about how to represent the series numbering.   Choices and forms of entry for series are based on rules set forth in Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed., 2002 revision, 2003 update under the series area information sections provided in several chapters.  Many libraries follow the series treatment decisions made by the Library of Congress.  Series authority records also include information about publishers, numbering peculiarities and classification.  An example of a simple authority card is provided below.  Also, note the series is an added entry.

Example:

           Monographs in American geography ; no. #

             traced

                                 ( )

The public card catalog card (what the public sees) is shown below.
"Monographs in American geography ; no. 18" would appear on top of a catalog card. Please note: the "no. 18" was arbitrarily chosen as an example of numbering.  The "no." appears as part of the series statement because the abbreviation "no." probably appeared on the item itself.  Also, note the series is an added entry.

917.3       Monographs in American geography ; no. 18
               
                Smith, Candace.
                   The geography of the United States. -- New York : Geography Pub., 1999.
                   298 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm. (Monographs in American geography ; no. 18)             

                1. Geography--United States.  I. Title.  II. Series.

                                                               ( )

Note that this series does include a "no." which means the cataloger making the series treatment decision included only the number of the series because the items most likely didn't have the words "volume,"  "number," or "part"  printed on the piece itself.   Also, note the series is an added entry.

Other examples of how series could be set up are shown as follows:

           Eyewitness juniors ;  #

             traced

                         ( )

The public card catalog card (what the public sees) is shown below.
"Eyewitness juniors 6" would appear on top of a catalog card. 
Note that this series does not include a "no.", "v." or "pt." which means the cataloger making the series treatment decision included only the number of the series because the items most likely didn't have the words "volume,"  "number," or "part"  printed on the piece itself.   Also, note the series is an added entry.

            Eyewitness juniors ; 6

597.8   Clarke, Barry.Parsons, Alexandra.
                Amazing frogs & toads / written by Barry Clarke ; photographed
            by Jerry Young. -- 1st American ed. --  New York : Knopf, 1990.
                29 p. : col. ill. ; 24 cm. (Eyewitness juniors ; 6)
                Includes index.
                Text and photographs introduce members of the frog and toad world and describe their               unique characteristics.
                 ISBN: 0679806881
                 1. Frogs--Juvenile literature.  2. Toads--Juvenile literature. 
            I. Young, Jerry.  II. Series.                        
QL458.4 .P36 1990                                         ( )                                                      89-38833

Note:  With authority control all of the entries in the catalog would look consistent:

    Eyewitness juniors ; 1
    Eyewitness juniors ; 2

    Without authority control the catalog could have inconsistencies such as the following:

    Eyewitness juniors ; 1
    Eyewitness juniors
    Eyewitness juniors ; no. 3
    Eyewitness juniors ; vol. 4
    Eyewitness juniors ; v. 5

Example:

           Archway books.

             not traced
             Give phrase as a quoted note.

                                 ( )

The public card catalog card (what the public sees) is shown below.
"Archway paperback" would not appear on top of a catalog card.

FIC                 
                Colman, Hila.
                   A fragile love / Hila Colman. -- New York : Pocket Books,                  [1985], c1980.
                   122 p. ; 18 cm.
                   "An Archway paperback."
                   Originally published as Accident.

               1. Accidents--Fiction.  2. Physically handicapped--Fiction. 
               3. Friendship-Fiction.  I. Title: Accident.

                                                                    ( )                                                        80-20509

Note that this series does not appear at the top of cards, nor is the series an added entry.  

Assignment:

Make an authority card for the series, Issues in Library Management.   The series has no numbering and the items are to be cataloged and classified together under Dewey number 020 and the series is not analyzed. Mail the assignment to:

Lorraine Lanius, Head
Technical Services Unit
Vermont Dept. of Libraries
109 State St.
Montpelier, VT  05609-0601

Please note:  Lesson 2 continues and has two more assignments.  You may mail the assignments one at a time or all at once.


I.  Subject authority work

  
    You have probably been consulting authority control resources all along without knowing it.  Sears List of Subject Headings and Library of Congress Subject Headings are both authority files for subject headings.  Choices and forms of entries for both sources are shown in bold print.  The entries under each subject heading are standard cross references used in card and automated catalogs.

A. Authority work using Sears List of Subject Headings

Sears List of Subject Headings is the commonly used authority for small libraries using catalog cards.  In addition to AACR2R, Sears provides an explanation on how to make cross references.

A key to Sears is provided below:

UF  Used for                                    Make a "see from" reference
BT  Broader Topic                          Make a "see also from" reference
RT  Related Topic                           Make a "see also from" reference
SA  See also                                   Make a "see also" reference
NT Narrower Topic                         Make a "see also" reference
USE                                                  Make a "see" reference

The following example shows a Sears List of Subject Headings (17th ed.) authority with cross references.

Children's poetry 808.81; 809.1; 811, etc.; 811.008, etc,; 811.009, etc.
   Use for individual poems, collections, or materials about poetry written for children.  Individual works and collections of poetry written by children are entered under Children's Writings.  Materials about poetry written by children are entered under Child authors.
UF  Poetry for children
BT  Children's literature
       Poetry
NT  Children's songs
       Lullabies
       Nonsense verses
       Nursery rhymes
       Tongue twisters

The authority given above provides the basis for the following types of cross references given below:

A see from cross reference can be created from the following Sears entry:
UF  Poetry for children

           Poetry for children

             see

         Children's poetry

                        ( )

A see also reference can be created from the following Sears entry:
BT  Children's literature

           Children's literature

             see also

         Children's poetry

                         ( )

A see also cross reference can be created from the following Sears entry:
BT  Poetry

           Poetry

             see also

         Children's poetry

                          ( )

A see also cross reference can be created from the following Sears entries:
NT  Children's songs
        Lullabies
        Nonsense verses
        Nursery rhymes
        Tongue twisters

           Children's poetry

             see also

         Children's songs
         Lullabies
         Nonsense verses
         Nursery rhymes
         Tongue Twisters

                                 ( )

 

Assignment:

Pick any entry in Sears List of Subject Headings and create appropriate card cross references.  If your library does not own a copy of Sears you may request a photocopy of an entry.  Please send the photocopy of the entry from Sears as well as the cross references on catalog cards or on paper.  If you use paper, be sure to draw lines around each cross reference to look like cards.  Mail the assignment to:

Lorraine Lanius, Head
Technical Services Unit
Vermont Dept. of Libraries
109 State St.
Montpelier, VT  05609-0601

Please note:  Lesson 2 continues and has one more assignment.  You may mail the assignments one at a time or all at once.

B.  Authority Work using Library of Congress Subject Headings

The authority structure within Library of Congress Subject Headings is more complex because many more terms are used.  Like the Sears list, the cross referencing includes broader, narrower, and related references.  In addition to AACR2R, LCSH provides an explanation on how to make cross references.   A key to LCSH is provided below:

UF  Used for                                Make a "see from" reference
BT  Broader Topic                      Make a "see also from" reference
RT  Related Topic                       Make a "see also from" reference
SA   See also                              Make a "see also" reference
NT  Narrower Topic                    Make a "see also" reference
USE                                             Make a "see" reference

The following example shows a Library of Congress Subject Headings authority with cross references.

Quotations
        [PN6080-PN6095]
        Here are entered collections of quotations in various languages.  Collections of original quotations in one language as well as collections translated from various languages into one language are entered under the headings Quotations, English, [French, Latin, etc].  Collections translated from one language are entered under the original language.

UF  Ana
       Sayings
BT  Epigrams
       Literature
       Terms and phrases
RT  Aphorisms and apothegms
SA  subdivision Quotations under names of individual persons, families, and sacred works, and under classes of persons and ethnic groups: also subdivision Sacred books--Quotations under religions, e.g.
       Buddhism--Sacred books--Quotations; and subdivision Quotations,
       maxims, etc. under names of countries cities, etc, and topical headings
NT  Bible.  O.T.--Quotations in rabbinical literature
       Dead Sea scrolls--Quotations
       Last words
       Law--Quotations
       Maxims
       Proverbs

The authority given above provides the basis for the following types of cross references given below.

A see from cross reference can be created from the following LCSH entry:
UF Ana

           Ana

             see

         Quotations
                  ( )

 

A see from cross reference can be created from the following LCSH entry:
UF Sayings

           Sayings

             see

         Quotations
                  ( )

A see also from cross reference can be created from the following  LCSH entry:
BT Epigrams

           Epigrams

             see also

         Quotations
                  ( )

A see also from cross reference can be created from the following LCSH entry:
BT Literature

           Literature

             see also

         Quotations
                  ( )

A see also from cross reference can be created from the following LCSH entry:
BT Terms and phrases

           Terms and Phrases

             see also

         Quotations
                  ( )

A see also from cross reference can be created from the following LCSH entry:
RT Aphorisms and apothegms

           Aphorisms and apothegms

             see also

         Quotations
                          ( )

A see also cross reference note can be created from the SA entry shown on the authority given above:

           Quotations

               see also subdivision Quotations under names of individual persons
               and sacred works, and under classes of persons and ethnic groups; also subdivision                  Sacred books--Quotations under religions, e.g. Buddhism--Sacred books--Quotations                  and subdivision Quotations, maxims, etc. under names of countries, cities, etc. and                  topical headings
                                                                        ( )

A see also cross reference can be created from the following LCSH entry:
NT Bible. O.T.--Quotations in rabbinical literature

           Quotations

             see also

           Bible. O.T.--Quotations in
           rabbinical literature
                            ( )

A see also cross reference can be created from the following LCSH entry:
NT Dead Sea scrolls--Quotations

           Quotations

             see also

         Dead Sea scrolls--Quotations
                            ( )

A see also cross reference can be created from the following LCSH entry:
NT Last words

           Quotations

             see also

         Last words
                            ( )

A see also cross reference can be created from the following LCSH entry:
NT Law--Quotations

           Quotations

             see also

         Law--Quotations
                             ( )

A see also cross reference can be created from the following LCSH entry:
NT Maxims

           Quotations

             see also

         Maxims
                             ( )

A see also cross reference can be created from the following LCSH entry:
NT Proverbs

           Quotations

             see also

         Proverbs
                             ( )

A see reference can be created from the following LCSH entry:
USE Women--Quotations

           Quotations--Women authors

             see

         Women--Quotations
                             ( )

 

Assignment:

Pick any entry in Library of Congress Subject Headings and create appropriate card cross references.  If your library does not own a copy of LCSH you may request a photocopy of an entry.  Please send the photocopy of the entry from LCSH as well as the cross references on cards or on paper.  If you use paper, be sure to draw lines around each cross reference to look like cards.  Mail the assignment to:

Lorraine Lanius, Head
Technical Services Unit
Vermont Dept. of Libraries
109 State St.
Montpelier, VT  05609-0601

END OF LESSON 2

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